"A half yearly International Journal of Biological Sciences Registered in U.S. ISSN Center at the Library of Congress"

Current Issue
Volume 2 , Number : 2 (July - December, 2023)


Organism's Adaptability to the Adverse Condition is Genetic or Epigenetic

Hirendra Nath Sarma
Email: hnsrgu@gmail.com

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Review Article

Agro-Based Sericulture Wastes for the Development of Rural Based Industry in India

SK Nuri*1 , Somdip Majumdar2 and Salil Raha3


Abstract: Sericulture mainly aims towards the production of high quality silk yarn from mulberry and non-mulberry silkworms. These insects belong to two different families of the order Lepidoptera, named as Bombycidae and Saturniidae as per host plants concern. Commercial production of silk is dependent primarily on three major steps: the cultivation of larval food plants, rearing of silkworms for cocoon formations and reeling processes for obtaining raw silkyarn.To perform all these activities successfully and profitably thus obtaining a number of organic wastes commonly known as seri-wastes. It is interesting to note that any kind of sericulture practising wastes can be a part of valuable utilisation in our life and for which additional income sources have been secured to the sericulture farmers, reelers and weavers too. It is well established that wastes generated during various steps in sericulture can also be recycled and reused appropriately. Mulberry sericulture is managed by rural populations whereas non-mulberry sericulture is easily handled by tribal communities. So, both the agro based productive bioresources will definitely inspire to build rural based industries in our country for better livelihood in these areas. This article thus provides detailed information about sources and utilities of seri-wastes and advancing future researchers to explore more useful products.
Key words: Economic gains, Industry development, Sericulture, Seriwastes, Utilities.



Original Research Article

Phytoremediation of Sewage Water for Raising Potted Plants using Lemna sp.

Sachin1 , Rohit Raj1 , Renu Kathpalia1 , Inderdeep Kaur2 *


Abstract: A large number of plants have the potential to remediate polluted water. The phytoremediated water, if not considered too fit for drinking as per WHO standards, can be used for non-potable purposes such as watering of plants or washing. The primary concern in water used for irrigation, is its salinity level. Since salts in water can affect both the soil structure and crop yield, it is important to maintain a certain level of salts, an indicator of suitability of water for irrigation purposes. The present study was therefore undertaken at Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi to remediate sewage water generated at the college campus, for irrigation purposes using duckweed (Lemna sp), easily available in and around the study site. Duckweed was grown for two weeks in sewage, pond and tap water taken from Kirori Mal College site. The light and dark cycle with 6 hrs of natural sunlight was provided. After 15 days the water samples were tested for hardness, alkalinity, boron, Ca ²+ and Na+ concentration, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) at Shri Ram Institute of Industrial Research. The untreated samples served as control. The duckweed showed maximum growth in terms of harvested biomass in sewage water during the second week. The alkalinity in all samples showed a decrease with respect to their control. The preliminary studies have shown that sewage water can be phytoremediated for irrigation purposes using duckweed. The results are discussed in light of the literature available on phytoremediation by duckweed.
Key words: Duckweed, Phytoremediation, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Sewage water, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Total Salt Concentration (TSC)


Original Research Article

Preliminary Profiling of Extracellular Enzymes, Polysaccharide and Bioactive Secondary Metabolites of Pseudomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Banana Cultivars of Assam

Jibanjyoti Panda1 , P. Vetrivelkalai2 , B. Bhagawati3 , Nibha Gupta1*


Abstract: In this present study two banana endophytes; Pseudomonas and Lysinibacillus were studied for extracellular metabolites and enzyme. Endophytes were isolated from root of the Dwarfjehaji variety of Assam cultivars. The plate culture and detection method through colour development was used for extracellular enzyme, organic acid production and IAA production. Whereas, dual inoculation and solvent extraction method was followed for antimicrobial activity of these bacterial cultures. A preliminary study on extracellular production of enzymes, polysaccharides, organic acid, IAA and antifungal metabolites has been carried out on Pseudomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. isolated from banana cultivar of Assam. Lysinibacillus sp. exhibited enhanced chitinase activity and good mineral solubilizing activity whereas Pseudomonas sp. did not show such chitinase activity on plate culture. Both the bacterial cultures produced exopolysaccharide and organic acids. No indication of IAA production by both the organisms has been found. However, both Pseudomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. showed a wide range of antifungal potential. Data recorded on extracellular metabolic activity and antimicrobial activity of Pseudomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. have been found very promising and may be useful parameter for selecting both the bacteria as bioinoculant for crop improvement of banana.
Key words: Antifungal, Chitinase, Lysinibacillus , Phosphate solubilization, Polysaccharide, Pseudomonas


Original Research Article

Rotifer Biodiversity of Gyakar Sinyik - a natural mountain lake amidst Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary

Bikramjit Sinha*


Abstract: A study was undertaken to document the diversity of Rotifera in Ganga Lake, Itanagar as no such information was available. Plankton samples were collected quarterly during 2018-19 using a Nylobolt plankton net and Rotifera taxa were identified with the help of standard literature. The present study recorded 16 species of Rotifera belonging to 10 genera and 7 families from Ganga lake- the first ever detail study on Rotifera from any kind of biotopes in the Himalayan state of Arunachal Pradesh. The rotifer diversity of Ganga Lake is dominated by the tropic-centred family Brachionidae with 5 species under 4 genera. The Laurasian origin genera Trichocerca was found to be the most dominant genera with 5 species. This study also added 3 more taxa (Keratella quadrata, Trichocerca longiseta and Filinia terminalis) to the rotifer fauna of Arunachal Pradesh while confirming the occurrence of 9 earlier rotifer species.
Key words: Biodiversity, Eastern Himalaya, Ganga Lake, New records, Rotifera


Original Research Article

Bumblebee Habitats as a Part of Sustainable Ecotourism: Analysis from Regional Distribution in Arunachal Himalaya, India

Nyabin Riso1 , Chihi Umbrey1 , Amarnath Karmakar1 , Hiren Gogoi1*, Daniel Mize1 , and Paul H. Williams2


Abstract: Bumblebees are one of the natural resources in the region that attracts nature lovers for their beautiful colour patterns as well as for their pollination behaviour. Therefore, to study the possibility of including bumblebees as a part of sustainable ecotourism, quantitative assessment of the bumblebees in Arunachal Pradesh was conducted. We monitored 5-10 transects of 25 × 1 minside each of 31 grid cells of ~ 6.3 × 6.3 km planned. The study recorded 13 species of bumblebees with the highest species richness in the western part of the state. The top three grid cells for bumblebee diversity in terms of Shannon and Simpson indices are located in alpine meadows. All of these locations are adjacent to tourist areas. This indicates the potential for western Arunachal Pradesh to include bumblebees for ecotourism. In addition, 19 species of forage plants of bumblebees belonging to 12 families were recorded from the region. Principal component analysis loading score shows that the density of bumblebees is positively associated with altitude > humidity > sunlight intensity and negatively associated with ambient temperature.
Key words: Arunachal Pradesh, Bombus, Bumblebee, Ecotourism, Environmental factors, Forage plant, Species richness


Original Research Article

Agar Cultivation of Myxomycetes Arcyria denudata (L.) Wettst. -A potential source of secondary metabolites

Dr. Preeti Vinayak Phate*


Abstract: Myxomycetes have proven to be the potential source of secondary metabolites but due to smaller size of fruiting bodies extraction of sufficient quantity of bioactive compounds become difficult thus laboratory culture of these species is important. The present paper describes the agar cultivation of A. denudata on 1.5 water agar medium. The species being a potential source of secondary metabolites was cultivated in laboratory from spore to spore in 20 days. Moreover, out of known species of myxomycetes only 10% species have been cultured so far and from those 60% species falls in order Physarales. Arcyria denudata belonging to order Trichiales is one of the three species cultured so far in the genus and thus the present study is apparently the first report from Maharashtra India.
Key words:  agar, Alibag, Arcyria, cultivation, India, spore to spore.


Original Research Article
Short Communication

Butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) Biodiversity in and around Kakinada, in the State of Andhra Pradesh, India

*Elia Bandari, M.J.S. Sai Varma and M.Gangadhar


Abstract: This work includes a list of 42 species of butterflies, under 5 families, identified during a nine-month study in the places in and around Kakinada. Out of the 42 species identified, 27 species occur in the campus of P.R. Government College, Kakinada and the rest in the places around Kakinada. Along with the list of Butterfly species identified, their present conservation status according to IUCN is also mentioned. Various threats to butterflies, especially in the vicinity of the study area are discussed and their conservation measures are also suggested.
Key words: Andhra Pradesh, Butterflies, Biodiversity, Conservation, Kakinada.